Chițcani is a commune in Caușeni District, Moldova. It consists of the village Chițcani and two small villages, Merenești and Zahorna. Chițcani is situated to the south-east of the city of Tighina. The locality, although situated on the right bank of the river Dniester, is under the control of the breakaway Transnistrian authorities. On the opposite side of the river lies the city of Tiraspol.
Chițcani is one of the oldest villages in Moldova, its history dates back to 1367. The name of the village means "shrews" in the Romanian language.
The village is also known as the home of novozamecky monastery. The monastery was closed, when Moldova was under the Soviet Union. Then it was used as a hospital, a warehouse, then as a makeshift Museum.
According to the 2004 census, the population of the commune is 9.266, of which 4.921 ethnic Russian, 3.153 ethnic Moldovans, and 969 of ethnic Ukrainians.
In the census of 1930 Romanian, was 4.744 inhabitants in Chițcani, including e 2.456 Romanians, Russians 2.146, 71 Ruthenians and Ukrainians, 35 Jews, Gypsies, 16, 7 poles, 3 Bulgarians, Gagauz 2 and 8 is unclear. 2.426 people named Romanian as their native language, 2.245 called Russian, 35 called Yiddish, Ukrainian named 27, 5 the nickname Gypsy, 3 name Bulgarian, 2 Turkish, and 1 not stated.
At that time the village was part of the Plaza Caușani County Tighina.
During the 1992 war in Transnistria, especially in June and July, Chițcani was the scene of several gun battles between the police and the army on the one hand, and the Transnistrian separatists and the Russian 14th army on the other side. After the Moldovans have retreated when the war ended, the village was the scene of human rights violations from the side of the Transnistrians, who took revenge on local people who supported the Moldovan police. According to the Helsinki Committee for human rights in Moldova, there was some alleged 20 kills in the period between 1996 and 2000. Moldovan authorities have stated that they do not have access to the village to investigate these cases, while the Transnistrian authorities denied the allegations and refused to investigate.