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Greçe Memorandum

The Greçe Memorandum or the Red Book was a memorandum with twelve requests for the establishment of an autonomous Albanian province within the Ottoman Empire. The Memorandum was jointly written by Ismail Kemal bey Vlora and Luigj Gurakuqi.

Haxhi Ymer Kashari

Haxhi Ymer Kashari known also as Ymer Mustafa Kashari was an Albanian bejtexhi of the 18th century. Haxhi Ymer was born in Tirana in early 18th century. Back then part of the Sanjak of Scutari of the Ottoman Empire, Tirana was already flourishing ...

Ibrahim Pasha of Berat

After the death of Ahmet Kurt Pasha, the territory of the pashalik was ruled by a close ally of him, Ibrahim Pasha of Berat. As this territory belonged to the Middle Albania, Ibrahim Pasha was roused at this encroachment. This made Ali Pasha star ...

Pavlo Kurtik

Pavlo Kurtik or Pal Kurti was an Albanian or styled Slavo-Albanian feudal lord who held an Ottoman vilayet, an administrative unit in the Ottoman Empire similar to a county or shire, located between the Erzen and Shkumbin rivers in present-day Al ...

Laramans

The term Laraman in Albanian refers to crypto-Christians who adhered to Islam officially but continued to practice Christianity within the household. It was derived from the Albanian adjective i larme, meaning "variegated, motley, two-faced", a m ...

Arnaut Mami

Arnaut Mami or Mahomed the Albanian was an Ottoman Albanian renegade, the squadron admiral and the supreme commander of all Islamic vessels in North Africa and Pasha Algiers, known as the most formidable corsair of that period for his terrorizing ...

Nora of Hoti

Nora of Hoti or Lula Hoti was an Albanian freedom fighter and local heroine who fought with Ded Gjon Luli against Serb and Ottoman armies. Afterwards, during the Zog regime and Communist take over, she was treated badly and interrogated in Shkode ...

Veli Pasha

Veli Pasha was the son of Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor of the Pashalik of Yanina in Epirus. An Ottoman commander, he commanded forces against the Souliotes, the Septinsular Republic, and the Serbian rebels. In 1803, his father sent him with an ...

Tahir Pasha (Egypt)

Tahir Pasha or Thir Pasha was the Albanian commander of bashi-bazouks under Koca Husrev Mehmed Pasha. He rebelled and assumed government of Cairo, becoming the acting Ottoman governor of Egypt on 6 May 1803. He was beheaded by a Janissary soldier ...

Tajar Tetova

In 1908 he was sent by the Ottoman empire to support the Ottoman troops against the Albanian uprisings in Monastir present-day Bitola. On June 22, 1908 captain Tajar Tetova working together with the Bashkimi club of Monastir, mutinied and fled in ...

Omer Vrioni

Omer Vrioni was a muslim Tosk Albanian from the village of Vrioni near Berat hence his name, with a distinguished record in the battles in Egypt against Napoleon. When Ali Pasha revolted against the Sublime Porte, Omer was his treasurer. He initi ...

Abd al-Aziz ibn Idris ibn Hasan

Abd al-Azīz ibn Idrīs ibn Hasan ibn Abī Numayy was co-ruler of the Sharifate of Mecca with his cousin Nami ibn Abd al-Muttalib for three months in 1632. After Nami captured Mecca on Wednesday, 25 Shaban 1041 AH 17 March 1632 he appointed Abd al-A ...

Ibn Hddri

Meqed Ibn Hddri, also Meqed of Hothail Albogom was the sheikh of Hothail Albogom from the Adnanite tribe of Hothail. In the mid-19th century, he lived at Abar Alzayddi to the east of Alnir mountain in Najd. He was considered one of the most promi ...

Bani Khalid

Bani Khalid is an Arab tribal confederation. The tribe ruled the southern region of Iraq and eastern Saudi Arabia & Al qassim from the 15th century to the 18th century, and again under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire during the early 19th cent ...

Turabay ibn Qaraja

Turabay ibn Qaraja was the chieftain of the Bani Haritha tribesmen in northern Palestine and an Ottoman governor and tax farmer in the Marj Ibn Amer plain. His career began under the Mamluks in the late 15th century and continued under the Ottoma ...

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire mostly belonged to either the Armenian Apostolic Church or the Armenian Catholic Church. They were part of the Armenian millet until the Tanzimat reforms in the nineteenth century equalized all Ottoman citizens bef ...

Abdullah Freres

The Abdullah Freres were a group of three Ottoman brothers of Armenian descent, Viçen Abdullahyan, Hovsep Abdullahyan, and Kevork Abdullahyan, who were photographers of international fame during the late Ottoman Empire. They took pictures of scen ...

Adana Daruleytam

Adana Daruleytam-ı Osmani was an orphanage that was built in Adana for the Armenian orphans of the Adana massacre. The building is now part of the Adana Fen Lisesi.

Armenian education in the Ottoman Empire

Beginning with the 1863 education has been offered to the whole people, and so far as funds permit is absolutely free for all. All Armenian education is under the direction of lay committees. During this period in Russian Armenia the association ...

Armenian resistance during the Armenian Genocide

The Armenian resistance is a name given to the military and political activities of the Armenians under the Armenian political parties of Henchak, Armenakan, Dashnaktsutiun against the Ottoman Empire during World War I, considered a struggle for ...

Armenian Sisters of the Immaculate Conception

The Order of the Armenian Catholic Sisters of the Immaculate Conception is a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church founded on 5 June 1847 in Istanbul, Turkey. It was proposed in 1843 on the initiative of Archbishop Andon Hassounian who lat ...

Artsvi Vaspurakan

Artsvi Vaspurakan was an Armenian periodical. It was published monthly, then weekly, in Constantinople and Varagavank from 1855 to 1874 by Mkrtich Khrimian and M. Ananian. It was the first periodical published in the territory of Western Turkish ...

Hovakim I of Constantinople

Hovakim I, also known as Hovakim of Bursa, was the first Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople under the authority of the Catholicos of Armenia and of all Armenians. He and his community were invited by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II to the city fro ...

Manas family

The Manas Family were an Ottoman-Armenian family that provided Imperial Portraitists to the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire in the later half of the 19th century. Some were also chief secretaries to the Ottoman Embassy in Paris and others were musi ...

Mesrop of Khizan

Mesrop of Khizan was a prominent Armenian manuscript illuminator in Persia. Mesrop was born in the Ottoman Empire but eventually lived in Isfahan, Persia, where he contributed in the making of manuscripts for bibles and gospels for four decades. ...

Onnik Der Azarian

Onnik Der Azarian was an Ottoman Armenian painter. Born in izmit, Azarians father Hagop Der Azarian owned a printing house and bindery and was well known in the area. The painter Sarkis Der Azarian was his paternal uncle. After working at his fat ...

Aghavni Papazian

Aghavni Papazian, was an Ottoman Armenian actress. She is counted as one of the very first professional female actors in the Ottoman Empire and thereby the Middle East. In the 1850s, the modern theatre was founded in the Ottoman Empire by an Arme ...

Grigor Paron-Ter

Grigor Paron-Ter, was the Armenian Patricarch of Jerusalem. He reigned from 1613 to 1645. During his tenure, the Ottoman Empire was in crisis, which also impacted the Armenian people and Armenian Jerusalem. Even before entering into religious ser ...

Ottoman Armenian population

This article about the Ottoman Armenian population presents some statistics of the Armenian population within the Ottoman Empire. Population size within the empire between 1914 and 1915 is a controversial topic. Most estimates by Western scholars ...

Ali Nayip Zade

A personal friend of the Liberal Cretan politician and Prime Minister of Greece Eleftherios Venizelos, Nayip Zade was appointed by him as the first Prefect of Drama and Kavala in 1913. During Greeces expansion in the wake of the Balkan Wars and a ...

Ottoman Greeks

Ottoman Greeks were ethnic Greeks who lived in the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Turkeys predecessor. Ottoman Greeks, who were Greek Orthodox Christians, belonged to the Rum Millet. They were concentrated in what is today modern Greece, eastern ...

Panagiotis Benakis

Panagiotis Benakis was a Greek notable of Kalamata in the 18th century, during the Ottoman rule over Greece. He was born in Kalamata in ca. 1700, the son of Benou Psaltis and Stathoula Gerakari, daughter of Liverios Gerakaris. He was skilled in t ...

Petros Bereketis

Petros Bereketis or Peter the Sweet was one of the most innovative musicians of 17th-century Constantinople. He, together with Panagiotes the New Chrysaphes, Balasios the Priest and Germanos Bishop of New Patras was one of the most influential fi ...

Prinkipo Greek Orthodox Orphanage

The Prinkipo Greek Orphanage is a historic 20.000-square-meter wooden building on Buyukada, one of the nine Princes Islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. It is considered the largest wooden building in Europe and secon ...

Georgios Dimitriou

Georgios Dimitriou was a Greek 18th-century author and scholar. Dimitriou came from one of the notable and literate families of Gjirokaster, then Ottoman Empire. He was a native of that city, today located in southern Albania Northern Epirus. He ...

Evangelical School of Smyrna

The Evangelical School was a Greek educational institution established in 1733 in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, now Izmir, Turkey. The school, initially an Orthodox Church-approved institution, attracted major figures of the Modern Greek Enlightenment. ...

Gavrilo IV, Serbian Patriarch

Gavrilo IV was Archbishop of Pec and Serbian Patriarch for a short time during the turbulent year of 1758. He was an ethnic Greek. Before Gavrilo became Serbian Patriarch, he was the metropolitan of an unknown eparchy, under Serbian patriarchs Vi ...

Greek refugees

Greek refugees is a collective term used to refer to the nearly one million Greek Orthodox natives of Asia Minor, Thrace and the Black Sea areas who fled during the Greek genocide and Greeces later defeat in the Greco-Turkish War, as well as rema ...

Izmit massacres

The Izmit massacres refer to atrocities committed in the region of Izmit, Turkey, during the Greco-Turkish War which took place during the Greek Genocide. An Inter-Allied Commission of Enquiry that investigated the incidents, submitted a report, ...

Kirilo II, Serbian Patriarch

Kirilo II was Archbishop of Pec and Serbian Patriarch from 1759 to 1763. He was an ethnic Greek. In 1758, internal crisis and struggles in the Serbian Patriarchate of Pec resulted in deposition of Serbian Patriarch Gavrilo IV, and soon after that ...

Leontius, Metropolitan of Belgrade

Leontius was the Metropolitan of Belgrade between 1801 and 1813, during the Serbian Revolution. An ethnic Greek from Adrianople, Leontius was a disciple of Methodius, the Metropolitan of Belgrade between 1791 and 1801. Methodius was murdered, and ...

Neophytus II of Constantinople

Neophytus II was Patriarch of Constantinople twice, in 1602–03 and in 1607–12. An Athenian, he served as Metropolitan of Athens from 1597 until 3 April 1602, when he was elected as Patriarch in the place of his rival, Matthew II. His tenure was c ...

Etienne Padery

Etienne Padery was an Ottoman-born Greek, who served as a translator to the French embassy in Constantinople, and later as a French consul to the Safavid Empire.

Pajsije II

Pajsije II was Archbishop of Pec and Serbian Patriarch for a short time during 1758. He was an ethnic Greek. Before he became Serbian Patriarch, he was Metropolitan of Uzice and Valjevo, under Vikentije I. In 1758, when patriarch Vikentije went t ...

Tarabya British Schools

Tarabya British Schools also Ozel Tarabya Ingiliz Okulları or Ozel Tarabya Anadolu Lisesi is a private Anatolian High School in Tarabya, Istanbul, that offers both national and international education through an integrated curriculum to both inte ...

Georgios Tombras

Georgios Tombras was a Greek military officer who became a guerrilla leader in the Macedonian Struggle in the early 20th century under the nom de guerre Roupakias.

Phrontisterion of Trapezous

The Phrontisterion of Trapezous was a Greek educational institution that operated from 1682/3 to 1921 in Trabzon, in the Ottoman Empire, now Turkey. It provided a major impetus for the rapid expansion of Greek education throughout the Pontus regi ...

Sinan Reis

Sinan Reis, also Ciphut Sinan, "Sinan the Chief", and Portuguese: Sinao o Judeo, "Sinan the Jew", was a Barbary corsair and Jewish pirate who sailed under the famed Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa.

Shlomo Yellin

Shlomo Yellin was a Jewish lawyer and Ottoman nationalist who was born in the Old City of Ottoman Jerusalem. He was the younger brother of David Yellin. He was a member of the Beirut branch of the Committee of Union and Progress and knew Yiddish, ...

Ahmed Mukhtar Jaff

Ahmed Mukhtar Jaff was the son of Osman Pasha Jaff, Ottoman Kurdish ruler of Mosul Vilayet, and Adela Kahnem AKA Adela Jaff. He was one of the most prominent leaders of the Jaf family, as well as a poet and a novelist. Ahmed Mukhtar Jaf was a mem ...